Distributions of downward crustal deformation, tsunami watermark height and seawall height, and shoreline retreat due to the earthquake and tsunami in 2011. Significant beach shoreline retreats of several hundred meters, especially in the vicinity of river mouths and seawall breaches, extended over a wide area from Iwate Prefecture to Fukushima Prefecture, causing serious problems in the reconstruction process.
Curve of national beach loss rate in Japan due to the sea level rise and future map of beach loss rate for sea level rise of 0.6 m. The rate is estimated to be 47% for the sea level rise of 0.26 m (the minimum value of global average sea level rise at the end of 21st century; IPCC, 2013) and 91% for the sea level rise of 0.82 m (the maximum value of the sea level rise). Beaches are important for disaster mitigation, ecosystem conservation, and tourism. Climate change is expected to cause serious impact on coastal areas.
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